Cold and Flu Facts
When you have a common cold or the flu, you may experience several symptoms at the same timeï¿½nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing, fever, headache, body aches, sore throat, cough, and chest congestion. So how do you pick an over-the-counter (OTC) medicine to treat your symptoms? It’s important to only use medicines that treat the symptoms you have.
Multi-symptom cold medicines, also known as cough and cold combination products, are used to treat these symptoms. It is important to remember that multi-symptom cold medicines contain more than one active ingredient to treat more than one symptom.
Allergies are a separate health condition but have some similar symptoms to colds. Unsure if your symptoms point to a cold or allergies? Decode your symptoms with tips from Val Jones, M.D.
Cold and Flu Treatments
Multi-symptom cold medicines, like all OTC medicines, contain certain active ingredients that make them work in the human body. Because multi-symptom cold medicines treat more than one symptom, they contain more than one active ingredient. Each active ingredient treats a different symptom caused by the common cold. A multi-symptom cold medicine’s active ingredients, including how much of a substance is in each dose, are listed first on the Drug Facts label.
Multi-symptom cold medicines are available in many forms, including liquids, pills, soft chewables, dissolvable strips, and dissolvable powders. These medicines are taken by mouth and absorbed through the bloodstream.
Common symptoms and treatments associated with colds or the flu include:
Some multi-symptom cold medicines contain active ingredients that loosen or thin out mucus in the chest so that it is easier to clear when you cough.
- The expectorant active ingredient in multi-symptom cold medicine is guaifenesin
Some multi-symptom cold medicines contain active ingredients that work by temporarily reducing the cough reflex, which makes you cough less.
- The cough suppressant active ingredient in multi-symptom cold medicine is dextromethorphan
Some multi-symptom cold medicines may contain an active ingredient for pain (pain reliever) or fever (fever reducer). There are two basic types of pain relievers and fever reducers: 1) products containing acetaminophen, and 2) a group of products known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Pain reliever and fever reducer active ingredients in multi-symptom cold medicines include:
Some multi-symptom cold medicines contain antihistamine active ingredients to help relieve runny nose and sneezing. These may be the same active ingredients as the ones used in allergy medicines. Antihistamine active ingredients in multi-symptom cold medicines include:
Cold and Flu Medicines Safe Use Tips
- Always read the Drug Facts label carefully. The label tells you everything you need to know about the medicine, including the ingredients, what you are supposed to use it for, how much you should take, and when you should not take the medicine
- You should choose a multi-symptom cold medicine that matches only the symptoms you have. (See the “Uses” section of the Drug Facts label.)
- For liquid medicines, use the measuring device that comes with the product and do not take more than the recommended dose in a 24-hour period
- If you have a bad sore throat, or if it lasts more than two days or is accompanied by fever, headache, rash, nausea, or vomiting, immediately contact your healthcare provider immediately
- A lingering cough may be a sign of a serious condition. If your cough lasts more than one week or if you get a fever, rash, or a persistent headache while on the medicine, you should contact a healthcare provider
- Contact a healthcare provider if your fever gets worse or lasts for more than three days
- Some multi-symptom cold medicines may cause drowsiness or make you sleepy. Be sure to read the warnings on the Drug Facts label and do not drink alcoholic beverages, which may make the drowsiness worse
- Talk to a healthcare provider before taking a multi-symptom cold medicine if you are pregnant or breastfeeding
- Certain multi-symptom cold medicines may interact with other drugs. Talk to your healthcare provider if you are on a prescription monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) or a prescription drug for depression, psychiatric or emotional conditions, or Parkinson’s disease before taking a multi-symptom medicine
Safe Use Tips for Parents
All of the tips for the safe use of OTC multi-symptom cold medicines also apply to children. But like most OTCs, there are some additional considerations when it comes to treating kids.
- Do not give any oral multi-symptom cold medicine to a child under the age of 4
- Do not give a multi-symptom cold medicine or any OTC medicine that is only intended for an adult to a child
- Never use any multi-symptom cold medicine to sedate or make a child sleepy